The Guild of Stephen and St George is Anglo-Saxon in foundation with it's current Guild Master coming from a slightly younger European organisation dating from 1096.
Like all high end crafts, most of our work is carried out using hand tools, some whose design dates back 5,500 years. The terminology used by our stonemasons in general is a mix of Latin, Occitan and Normand in origin. Latin and Normand through, firstly the Roman and Lomdardi from 43AD to the 8th century and then the Norman and Lombard craftsmen brought to England in the years following 1066. Occitan is the language first written in the 10th century and still spoken in much of what is now Southern France, Northern Spain and Northern Italy and was used in the Outremer, especially the County of Tripoli.
It was beneficial for a master to speak Occitan for instance in 11th and 12th century England being the mother tongue of Richard I, King John and Henry III also being the language of the troubadour and Normand was the language of the ruling classes in general.
Our Guild Masters connections to this oral tradition are through the construction of Norman castles in Europe and the holy lands in the 11th to 13th centuries and then the Lemosin craft migrations starting in the 17th century in which his masters were involved. Bearla and Mastorika are also spoken by some Guild members.
Here are a few examples of terminology used on a daily basis some universally used others not.
Maul (Mall) or Mallet (a small maul) From Old Normand mallet, maillet (“a wooden hammer, mallet”), diminutive of mal, mail (“a hammer”), from Latin malleus (“a hammer, mall, mallet”).
Chisel From Old Normand cisel (French ciseau), from Vulgar Latin *cisellum, from Latin caesellum, from caesus, past participle of caedere (“to cut”).
Banker from Old Normand banc (“bench”), from Frankish *bank. Akin to Old English benc(“bench”).
Punch from Old Normand ponchon, poinchon"pointed tool, piercing weapon," from Vulgar Latin *punctionem (nominative *punctio) "pointed tool," from past participle stem of Latin pungere "to prick, pierce, sting,"
Pegar from old Occitan for glue
Mortar from Old Normand mortier "builder's mortar, plaster; from Latin mortarium "mortar, bowl for mixing or pounding"
Trowel from Old Normand truele, from medieval Latin truella, alteration of Latin trulla ‘scoop’, diminutive of trua ‘skimmer’.
Riffler from Old Occitan rifler ‘to scrape
Resson from old Occitan for echo
Jamb from Old Normand jambe ‘leg, vertical support’, based on Greek kampē ‘joint’.
Buttress from Old Normand bouterez ‘thrusting (arch)’, from boter ‘to strike or thrust’
Voussoir from Old Normand vosoir, from Vulgar Latin*volsorium, from *volsus, from Latin volvō (“I roll”).
Donjon from Old Normand/Occitan donjon, dongon (“castle keep”), from Frankish *dungjo, *dunjon- (“dungeon, bower, underground cellar”)
Cullis from Normand coulisse groove
( we have short audio clips of Normand and Lemosin Occitan)